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What jobs are in accounting and finance?

January 23, 2023 · 9 min read

The field of accounting is generally considered to be a stable and in-demand sector with a high number of job openings available. Today we will analyze the most demanding one.

Public accountant

Public accountants are professionals who work for public accounting firms and provide a wide range of services, including auditing, tax preparation, and consulting. They are typically licensed certified public accountants (CPAs) who have passed the Uniform CPA Exam.

Some of the specific responsibilities of a public accountant may include:

  • Auditing financial statements: This involves reviewing a company's financial records to ensure that they are accurate and in compliance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and other relevant laws and regulations.

  • Tax preparation: Public accountants prepare and file federal, state, and local tax returns for individuals, businesses, and other organizations.

  • Consulting: Public accountants may provide advice on various financial and business matters, such as mergers and acquisitions, business valuations, and financial planning.

  • Fraud detection and prevention: Public accountants may assist clients in identifying and preventing fraud by performing fraud risk assessments and evaluating internal controls.

  • Outsourced accounting services: Public accountants may provide accounting services to small businesses, such as bookkeeping and payroll services.

Management accountant

A management accountant, also known as a cost accountant, management accountant, or industrial accountant, is a professional who works for a single company and is responsible for budgeting, forecasting, and analyzing the company's financial performance. They play a key role in the financial planning and management of an organization by providing financial information that is used for decision-making and strategic planning.

Some of the specific responsibilities of a management accountant may include:

  • Budgeting and forecasting: This involves creating financial plans for the organization, including revenue and expense projections, and monitoring actual results against these plans.

  • Cost analysis: Management accountants are responsible for analyzing and reporting on the costs associated with a company's products or services.

  • Variance analysis: This involves comparing actual financial results against budgeted or forecasted results to identify variances and determine their causes.

  • Performance evaluation: Management accountants evaluate the financial performance of different departments or business units and make recommendations for improvement.

  • Risk management: Management accountants may also assist in identifying and managing financial risks, such as currency or interest rate risks.

  • Internal control: They are responsible for designing and maintaining the internal control systems that ensure the accuracy, completeness, and reliability of financial data.

  • Business analysis: Management accountants use their knowledge of the company's operations and financial data to provide insight into the company's financial position and assist in strategic decision-making.

Government accountant 

Government accountants are professionals who work for federal, state, or local government agencies and are responsible for managing the government's financial resources. They play a key role in ensuring that government funds are properly accounted for, allocated, and used in compliance with laws and regulations.

Some of the specific responsibilities of a government accountant may include:

  • Financial reporting: This involves preparing and submitting financial reports to government officials and other stakeholders, such as auditors, budget analysts, and legislators.

  • Budget preparation: Government accountants are involved in the budget preparation process, which includes forecasting revenues, estimating expenses, and allocating resources.

  • Auditing: Government accountants may also perform financial and compliance audits to ensure that government funds are being used in compliance with laws and regulations.

  • Financial analysis: Government accountants use their knowledge of government financial systems and policies to analyze and interpret financial data, and provide recommendations for improving financial performance.

  • Compliance: Government accountants are responsible for ensuring that government financial transactions comply with laws and regulations.

  • Cost accounting: Government accountants are responsible for analyzing and reporting on the costs associated with government programs and services, and determining their effectiveness.

  • Internal control: Government accountants are responsible for ensuring that government financial systems and controls are in place to ensure the accuracy, completeness, and reliability of financial data.

Internal auditor

An auditor is a professional who conducts an independent examination of an organization's financial records and operations to ensure that they are accurate, complete, and in compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and standards. Auditors typically work in one of two areas: internal auditing or external auditing.

Internal auditors work within an organization, and their primary focus is to evaluate the effectiveness of the organization's internal controls, risk management, and governance processes. They provide assurance that the organization's financial reporting is accurate and that the organization is complying with all relevant laws and regulations.

External auditors, on the other hand, are independent of the organization and are hired to provide assurance to the organization's shareholders, creditors, and other external stakeholders that the financial statements are accurate and reliable. External auditors are typically certified public accountants (CPAs) who work for public accounting firms.

Auditors use various techniques to gather information, such as reviewing financial records, interviewing employees, and observing operations. They then use this information to form an opinion on the organization's financial statements, usually expressed in an audit report.

Auditing is an important function in ensuring the integrity and reliability of financial information. Auditors help organizations to identify and correct any weaknesses in their financial systems and controls, and also to provide assurance to stakeholders that the financial information is accurate and reliable.


A bookkeeper is a professional who is responsible for maintaining the financial records of a business or organization. They are responsible for recording financial transactions, such as sales, purchases, and payments, and ensuring that the financial records are accurate and up-to-date. Bookkeepers typically work in small businesses, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and may work independently or as part of a larger accounting team.

Some of the specific responsibilities of a bookkeeper may include:

  • Recording financial transactions: This includes entering information into accounting software, such as invoices, bills, and receipts, and making sure that all transactions are recorded in the correct account and are accurate.

  • Reconciling bank statements: Bookkeepers are responsible for reconciling bank statements to ensure that the financial records match the bank's records and that there are no discrepancies.

  • Payroll: Bookkeepers may be responsible for maintaining employee records, calculating payroll taxes, and issuing payments to employees.

  • Accounts payable and receivable: Bookkeepers are responsible for managing the company's bills and invoices, and making sure that payments are made on time.

  • Financial reporting: Bookkeepers may be responsible for preparing and issuing financial reports, such as income statements and balance sheets, to management or other stakeholders.

  • Compliance: Bookkeepers must ensure that all financial records are in compliance with laws and regulations, such as tax laws and financial reporting standards.

Budget Analyst 

A budget analyst is a professional who is responsible for analyzing and preparing budgets for a company or government agency. They play a key role in the financial planning and management of an organization by ensuring that all expenses are properly accounted for and that the organization's financial resources are being used efficiently. Some of the specific responsibilities of a budget analyst may include:

  • Reviewing and analyzing financial data, including past budgets and financial statements, to identify trends and potential areas for cost savings.

  • Working with department managers and other staff to develop budgets for different areas of the organization.

  • Examining financial data to identify any discrepancies or inconsistencies, and working with department managers to resolve any issues that are found.

  • Monitoring actual financial performance against budgeted amounts and providing regular reports on variances.

  • Assisting with the preparation of financial reports and presentations for management and other stakeholders.

  • Identifying and recommending cost-saving opportunities and process improvements.

  • Keeping abreast of changes in laws and regulations related to budgeting and accounting.

  • Providing guidance and support to department managers and other staff on budget-related issues.

  • Collaborating with other financial professionals, such as financial analysts and accountants, to ensure the organization's financial goals are met.

Accounts Payable Specialist

An Accounts Payable (AP) Specialist is responsible for managing a company's financial transactions related to its vendors and suppliers. They are in charge of ensuring that bills are paid promptly and accurately. The specific responsibilities of an Accounts Payable Specialist may include:

  • Reviewing, coding, and processing invoices for payment in a timely manner.

  • Reconciling vendor statements and resolving any discrepancies.

  • Maintaining accurate and up-to-date vendor files and records.

  • Communicating with vendors and suppliers to resolve any billing issues or disputes.

  • Preparing and processing check runs and electronic payments.

  • Performing month-end and year-end closing procedures.

  • Participating in internal and external audits.

  • Assisting with the preparation of financial reports and budgeting.

  • Keeping abreast of changes in laws and regulations related to accounts payable.

Future of the Accounting 

The field of accounting is evolving and adapting to new technologies, data analysis, and changing business practices. Here are some of the key trends that are likely to shape the future of accounting:

  1. Increased use of artificial intelligence and automation: The integration of technology such as artificial intelligence and machine learning in accounting processes is expected to increase. Automating repetitive tasks such as data entry and analysis will enable accountants to focus on higher-value activities such as strategic planning and decision-making.

  1. Greater emphasis on data analytics: With the growing amount of data being generated by businesses, the ability to analyze and interpret this data will become increasingly important for accountants. This will enable them to identify patterns, trends, and insights that can inform business decisions.

  1. Increased focus on sustainability and social responsibility: Companies are increasingly being held accountable for their environmental and social impact, and accountants will play a key role in helping organizations to measure and report on their sustainability performance.

  2. Greater use of cloud computing: Cloud-based accounting software and platforms will become more prevalent in the future, enabling accountants to access financial information and collaborate with colleagues from anywhere.

  1. Greater emphasis on cybersecurity: As cyber threats continue to evolve, accountants will need to have a good understanding of cybersecurity issues and best practices to protect sensitive financial data.

  1. More remote work and virtual collaboration: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the shift towards remote work, and the accounting profession is likely to see more virtual collaboration and remote work in the future.

As the field of accounting continues to evolve, professionals will need to adapt and stay current with the latest technologies and best practices to remain competitive. This means ongoing education and professional development will be key.

by Evgenii Solianikov

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